#MPOWERment Workout Playlist 79
Is this pandemic over yet?!?
I hope you are all staying smart and taking care of each other. I hope to get back to blogging more next month when the time will at least moderately allow. Until then, at least find some solace and motivation in this month’s #MPOWERment workout playlist 79. Disclaimer – this is a hella mix of music of different genres so if that’s not your groove…
- I Prevail feat. Joyner Lucas – DOA
2. Zack de la Rocha – Digging Windows
3. DED – Rope
4. Rise Against – The Violence
5. 3TEETH & Ho99o9 – Lights
6. The Game feat Kanye West – Wouldn’t Get Far
7. Valentino Khan – Lick It
8. Run the Jewels feat. Zac de la Rocha – Close Your Eyes and Count to F%^k
9. Sean Paul – Bend You Back
10. Cooldown Jam: Surfaces – Sunday Best
Hormesis – Physical Fitness as the Catalyst. Holistic Health is the Product
Thompson Rivers University By Melissa Traynor and Jason Tutt
BIOL 3131: Introduction to Biochemistry Dr. Alicia Mazari-Andersen
June 12, 2020
Hormesis has yet to have an interdisciplinary definition although it can be understood as being “…an adaptive biphasic dose response where low doses result in protective effects that can lead to improved organismal performance while high doses result in detrimental effects. In this framework, mild exposure to…stressors elicit an adaptive response that elevates cellular defenses and protects the organism” (Berry & Lopez-Martínez, 2020). Physical fitness can take advantage of hormesis by acting as a feed-forward catalyst toward holistic1 adaptations at a molecular level when humans are faced with physical, mental and emotional adversities.
Pathological reactions to these adversities can be in the form of exaggerated immune responses, systemic breakdown, an inability to respond quickly to a physical danger, or an inability to circumvent distractions in order to maintain cognitive functioning required for high level task- oriented prioritization and focus. Hormesis provides multifaceted performance benefits in order to better prepare an organism for further bouts of acute stressors and to improve resilience (Berry & Lopez-Martínez, 2020). In some cases, increases in reproductive capabilities and longevity of the organism’s lifespan can also arise. Regardless of the disease or dysfunction, dose-response progressive physical fitness acts as a catalyst to optimize human health and quality of life. In this research paper, we will present our theoretical framework which argues that hormesis in response to repeated bouts of moderate exercise can provide both short term and long-term holistic health responses that will benefit most individuals.
2.1 Theoretical Framework
One of the most established theories of mammalian detriment relates to the degradation of mitochondria through damage and dysfunction facilitated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The evidence suggests that these chemical reactive oxygen carrying species, if not managed, can infiltrate cells throughout the electron transport chain causing leaks of electrons and create impairment of cell function or destruction of DNA by altering pathways necessary for energy communication throughout all of the body’s systems (Nelson & Cox, 2017). It has also been
1 Holistic refers to consideration of all systems within the body working together or being affected by each other. It considers the effect of internal to external environmental factors and their effects on said systems which ultimately helps or hinders a person’s quality of life.
shown that regulatory mediators can turn biological disease states on or off through methylation or acetylation of proteins on cells (Dimauro, Paronetto, & Caporossi, 2020). Under typical circumstances, the host’s production of endogenous ROS can be attenuated with its antagonistic endogenous production of antioxidants thus preventing pathophysiology from occurring. Aside from genetic predispositions, multiple factors in life can contribute to an imbalance of this system in conjunction with making epigenetic changes. Environmental and lifestyle actions may be able to counter these chronic stressors that may be from poor food sources, air quality or other vectors. This unbalanced state of ROS to antioxidant production is where physical fitness can play a role in bringing the hormetic curve back to favouring a healthy state.
2.2 Proposed Mechanistic Solutions via Physical Fitness
Physiological stressors such as intermittent anoxic and hypoxic conditions, improve resiliency in multiple forms (Sinex & Chapman, 2015). Evidence suggests that short bouts of exposures to the aforementioned situations, such that can be created through high intensity exercise training, not only provokes cellular protective processes of endogenous antioxidant production at that specific time, but there is a compounded effect of this mechanism’s ability to respond at a faster rate over time with repeated “stress exposures” (Berry & Lopez-Martínez, 2020). This effect contributes to the hosts ability to repartition nutrients at a faster rate of response to areas of need within cellular transport, as well as helping to potentially expediting metabolic processes such as O2 to CO2, and H: removal in energy systems (Nelson & Cox, 2017).
Another area of effect that physical fitness has in regulation of the hormetic curve is in relation to temperature change and pH levels. Physical activity, especially of a high exertional intensity, increases core temperature and production of acidic ions. A model exists called rapid heat hardening (RHH) that elucidates the concept of protective biological mechanisms evolving when a species is challenged with high thermic exposures (Berry & Lopez-Martinez, 2020) which may have an effect on immunological inflammatory responses. This RHH model may have an effect on immunological inflammatory responses thus preparing the body with exertional activity as a preparatory modality against overreaction of the immune system when exposed to forms of toxins or elevated levels of interleukins, cytokines, and other pro-inflammatory molecules (Goncalves et al., 2020).
Finally, physical activity generates microtrauma and inflammation in muscles and joints and well as systemic reaction oxygen species (ROS) which can have a detrimental role in neurodegenerative disease and impairment of learning and memory (Jahangiri & Gholamnezhad, 2019). However, the dosage of ROS generated from moderate physical activity is low enough for the body to easily overcome through activation of its antioxidant enzymes which protect against the side effects of oxidative damage. Overtraining on the other hand may actually increase levels of ROS and oxidative damage to levels that decrease antioxidant enzyme activity in areas of the body such as the brain leading to impairments in learning and memory (Jahangiri & Gholamnezhad 2019).
2.3 Known Benefits to Physical Activity
According to the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology2 (CSEP), physical activity is important for being healthy and can give us energy, decrease stress, make us stronger, and prolong independence as we age. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s website3 states “physical activity can reduce the risk of over 25 chronic conditions including stroke, colon cancer, osteoporosis, hypertension, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.
Research shows that as much as half of functional decline between the ages of 30 and 70 is due, not to aging, but to an inactive way of life”. Physical activity that does not lead to exhaustion is a potent non-pharmacological treatment to improve learning and memory and reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (Jahangiri & Gholamnezhad 2019). The regulation of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes after acute and regular exercise are considered key players in orchestrating these beneficial responses. (Dimauro, Paronetto, & Caporossi, 2020). An increase in mitochondrial efficiency is also seen in response to ROS production by activation of mitochondrial protection mechanisms and upregulation of certain proteins (Berry & Lopez- Martínez, 2020).
The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology recommends that individual’s get at least
2.5 hours of physical activity per week in order to experience health benefits of exercise, and to
2 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology: https://csepguidelines.ca/
3 Public Health Agency of Health: https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/being-active/physical-activity- your-health.html
reduce the risk of various chronic health conditions. The proposed fitness dose-response of CSEP, appears to be reasonable level to meet the hormetic response elucidated in the paper but there are holes in such a generalized recommendation. Areas that need to be considered for future research are very individualized to each person although from a public health population, some level of generalization needs to occur. Moving forward, doses of fitness for health and quality of life must be personalized and directed based on current health status, individual capabilities, access to resources for performing the 2.5 hours as well as the frequency and modality proficiency. These aspects will provide a greater understanding from a molecular level exactly what hormesis thru fitness should look like, and its beneficial specificity to all stakeholders involved.
The intent of this review was to highlight the complementary aspects of physical fitness as the hormetic stressor, and positive health outcomes. The theoretical framework proposed emphasizes that the body will respond in a favourable manner to reasonable dosages of acute stressors including moderate level exercise. Exposure to, and generation of ROS can be detrimental to maintaining homeostasis in individuals. This effect is due to infiltration of the electron transport chain and damage to create impairment of cell function or destruction of DNA by altering pathways necessary for energy communication throughout all of the body’s systems.
Physical activity in moderate dosages can generate low but manageable doses of ROS throughout the body that lead to positive adaptations that increase resilience. Physical activity can also lead to acute changes in both temperature and pH levels in the body that activate protective biological mechanisms further increase resilience to repeated stressors. An increase in resilience to stressors, antioxidant enzyme activity and activation of protective biological mechanisms in the body are some of the key players which provide the health benefits linked to physical activity.
The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology recommends that individual’s get at least
2.5 hours of physical activity per week in order to experience health benefits of exercise, and to reduce the risk of various chronic health conditions. The proposed fitness dose-response of CSEP, appears to be reasonable level to meet the hormetic response elucidated in the paper but
there are holes in such a generalized recommendation. Areas that need to be considered for future research are very individualized to each person although, from a public health population, some level of generalization needs to occur. Moving forward, doses of fitness for health and quality of life must be personalized and directed based on current health status, individual capabilities, access to resources for performing the 2.5 hours as well as the frequency and modality proficiency. These aspects will provide a greater understanding from a molecular level exactly what hormesis thru fitness should look like, and its beneficial specificity to all stakeholders involved.
Berry, R., & Lopez-Martínez, G. (2020). A dose of experimental hormesis: When mild stress protects and improves animal performance. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 242 (January), 110658. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2020.110658
Dimauro, I., Paronetto, M. P., & Caporossi, D. (2020). Exercise, redox homeostasis and the epigenetic landscape. Redox Biology, 35 (January), 101477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101477
Goncalves, C. A. M., Dantas, P. M. S., dos Santos, I. K., Dantas, M., da Silva, D. C. P., Cabral,
- G. de A. T., Guerra, R. O., & Junior, G. B. C. (2020). Effect of Acute and Chronic Aerobic Exercise on Immunological Markers: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Physiology, 10(January), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01602
Jahangiri, Z., Gholamnezhad, Z., Hosseini, M., Beheshti, F., & Kasraie, N. (2019). The effects of moderate exercise and overtraining on learning and memory, hippocampal inflammatory cytokine levels, and brain oxidative stress markers in rats. Journal of Physiological Sciences, 69(6), 993–1004. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12576-019-00719-z
Nelson D, & Cox M. 2017. Lehninger: Principles of biochemistry & SaplingPlus. 7th ed. New York (NY): W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN: 978-1-3191-2587-5
Schulkin, J., & Sterling, P. (2019). Allostasis: A Brain-Centered, Predictive Mode of Physiological Regulation. Trends in Neurosciences, 42(10), 740–752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2019.07.010
Sinex, J.A., & Chapman, R.F. (2015). Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 4(4), 323–332. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2015.07.005